HbbTV (hybrid television) is a combination of traditional television with internet services. When you enter a TV channel on which HbbTV services are available, the TV automatically launches the application that allows you to display additional content. This can be additional information or multimedia messages.

The presence of HbbTV services on a given TV program is usually signaled by a red dot in the corner of the screen. It is also customary to enter the HbbTV application using the red button on the remote control.

A special case is the so-called virtual channels, in which, after entering a given channel, the television automatically starts playing the program transmitted via the Internet.

To use hybrid television you need a TV set that supports HbbTV. It must also be connected to the Internet.

Detailed requirements for television receivers, including the HbbTV version, are specified in the “Regulation of the Minister of Digital Affairs of October 7, 2019 on technical and operational requirements for digital receivers”. (Journal of Laws 2019 item 2125)

For the proper reception of digital terrestrial television a TV equipped with a DVB-T tuner (compatible with MPEG-4 / AVC) or a set-top box – an external decoder allowing to receive digital terrestrial television after connecting to the TV is required. In year 2022 transmission standard will change to DVB-T2/HEVC.

The Minister of Digital Affiars has established technical and operational requirements for DVB-T and DVB-T2 digital terrestrial TV receivers. The Ordinance of 7 october 2019 (Journal of Laws 2019, item 2125) defines the basic parameters that digital television receivers should comply with in order to properly receive and decode vision and sound signals of digital terrestrial television broadcast from Poland.

People planning to purchase an integrated receiver (i.e. a TV equipped with a tuner and a decoder) or a special adapter (so-called set-top box) to an analogue TV set, should already today make sure that the equipment meets the requirements set out in the draft ordinance, which provides, inter alia, for: DVB-T and DVB-T2 broadcast standard (Digital Video Broadcasting – Terrestrial)

  • for video signal: support for HD encoded in HEVC (H.265) and SD and HD format encoded in MPEG-4 part 10 (H.264 / AVC)
  • for audio signal: formats supported from mono, through stereo and two sounds, up to 5.1 surround sound. encoded in the MPEG-2 system Layer II and E-AC3 (Dolby Digital Plus)

Detailed technical information about the equipment is laid down in the Ordinance of the Minister of Administration and Digitization of 7 October 2019 on technical and operational requirements for digital receivers.

DVB-T (Digital Video Broadcasting – Terrestrial) is the standard for digital terrestrial television adopted in Europe.

DVB is the name of the DVB Project (Digital Video Broadcasting Project), established in 1993, with the aim to develop recommendations for digital television transmission. The result of the DVB Project is the family of telecommunications standards established by ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) for satellite TV DVB-S and DVB-S2, cable DVB-C and terrestrial DVB-T and DVB-T2. The basis of these systems is the transport stream (TS) defined and described in international standard ISO / IEC 13818-1. The TS consists of compressed video, audio and data components and tables (PSI) enabling the receiving device to receive a selected television or radio program and data.

DVB-T digital terrestrial television, apart from higher number of programs, offers better image and sound quality, as well as adding additional services such as multiple soundtracks, surround sound, or a detailed Electronic Program Guide (EPG). It is also possible to add interactive services and paid services.

Digital terrestrial television is a method of broadcasting television programs to individual recipients – viewers – using terrestrial broadcasting infrastructure. The introduction of digital television results from the need to enhance the efficiency of frequency use and to launch new services, which are not implementable in an analogue technology. To avoid market fragmentation, it was decided that DVB-T digital terrestrial television and its newer version of DVB-T2 will be implemented in Europe.

DVB-T / T2 digital terrestrial television introduced across Europe, successively replaced analogue TV, offering, apart from increasing the number of programs, better image and sound quality, as well as adding many soundtracks to the program, surround sound, program guide (EPG). It is also possible to add interactive services and paid services.

In order to orchestrate the process of digitization in Region 1 (Europe, Middle East, Africa – EMEA) ), in 2006, in Geneva, a planning conference (known as GE06) was held, which approved the plan for the division of frequency channels for the whole continent. As a result of the arrangements of the GE06 conference 8 independent coverings (multiplexes) of DVB-T were allocated for Poland. Six in the frequency band 470 – 790MHz (in channels 21 – 60),  one in the 790 – 862 MHz band (channels 61 – 69) and one in the 174 – 230 MHz band (channels 6 – 12).

A multiplex is a package of channels broadcast digitally with additional services via one frequency channel. This means that in the band formerly occupied by one analogue TV channel, it is possible to put many digitally broadcast programs. Colloquially, the multiplex is also called a set of frequency channels used to broadcast the same programs in a given area, e.g.  throughout the country. MUX is an abbreviation derived from the English definition of multiplex.

More information on DVB-T digital terrestrial television in Poland can be found at:

The technical broadcasting network operator -> Emitel
Internet forum on the EmiTel website -> Emitel Forum
Office for Electronic Communications -> UKE
National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television -> KRRiT

A dedicated decoder / receiver is required to receive digital television. In modern TV sets it is an integral part of the device. In the case of older televisions, it is necessary to purchase an external device – “set top box”. The device is installed between the antenna (antenna system) and the television set. To receive DVB-T digital television, the same antennas as for analogue TV are used.

It is recommended to use multi-element antennas and resign from antenna amplifiers if possible. Room antennas can only be used on sites with high signal strength. The antenna should be directed to the nearest broadcasting facility broadcasting DVB-T digital television, and then receiver should be programmed in accordance with the user’s manual to receive digital channels.

When selecting the antennas, pay attention to the antenna operational band and the polarization of the signal. Multiplexes MUX-1, MUX-2 and MUX-3 are broadcast via the UHF band. The MUX-8 multiplex is broadcast in the VHF band.

In Poland, the MPEG-4 standard (H.264 / AVC) was selected for image compression, so not all decoders available on the European market will be able to receive programs broadcast in Poland. Detailed requirements are laid down in the Ordinance of the Minister of Administration and Digitization regarding technical and operational requirements for consumer devices used to receive digital terrestrial television broadcasts.

In Poland Emitel provides digital terrestrial television coverage that exceeds 94% of the population. It means that in almost every corner of Poland it should be possible to receive a DVB-T signal. The list of broadcasting facilities, in the direction of which the receiving antennas must be directed, can be found at:

The EmiMaps application is also available at: to determine the emission range and orientation of the receiving antenna.

The version for Android devices can be downloaded from the GooglePlay store: EmiMaps for Android
The software release for iOS devices can be downloaded from the AppStore: EmiMaps for iOS

Paid terrestrial mobile TV is available in the largest cities in the country. Details on the Operator’s website.

The list of Emitel broadcasting facilities broadcasting DVB-T digital terrestrial television can be found at: and in the application EmiMapsis available at :
The EmiMaps version for Android devices can be downloaded from the GooglePlay store: EmiMaps for Android and the version for iOS devices with the AppStore: EmiMaps for iOS.

Paid terrestrial mobile TV is available in the largest cities in the country. Details on the Operator’s website.